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Content Reading: Early North American Colonies Part 2
In the Massachusetts Bay Colony, dissent occurred with people like Roger Williams, who at one point identified as a Baptist. Williams wanted to worship differently than the Puritans. He also wanted the English to buy land from Native Americans, not just take it. Williams felt that the Europeans had a moral obligation to treat the Native Americans justly. He left and formed Providence, which later became the capital of Rhode Island. In Providence, he gave citizens religious freedom. Anne Hutchinson also challenged the authority of leaders to interpret the Bible and was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
As more colonies formed, like New Hampshire and Connecticut, Native American groups began to challenge the English. They resisted converting to Christianity as well. During KING PHILIPS WAR, in 1675, a Wampanoag chief, Metacom (the English called him King Philip), organized an alliance against English settlers. The Native Americans attacked and burned villages to the ground and the English responded with intense brutality. The hostility between the two groups came with the struggle to control the lands claimed by England. Eventually, war and disease wore down the Native Americans and the resistance faded.
In 1609, Henry Hudson explored for the Dutch, who founded New Amsterdam in 1625. This became New York by 1664. The English eventually took over the area. In 1660, King Charles II paid a debt off by giving a man named William Penn land in North America called Pennsylvania, which means Penn’s Woods. Penn was a Quaker, an off shoot religion that deviated from Protestantism. Penn allowed complete religious freedom in his colony. Quakers were extreme pacifists and believed nobody should serve in the military. They also paid Native Americans for land. Quaker values included equality, cooperation, and religious tolerance.
From the 1600s to the 1700s, the colonies appeared that would form the 13 colonies. Mercantilism also arose. This system claimed wealth came from gaining precious metals, such as gold and silver. Also, the system claimed wealth comes from selling more goods than you buy. Colonies were vital toward the goal of making England prosper because they provided raw resources for the English economy. To protect their interests, England passed the Navigation Acts. These laws forced even more control over the colonies by compelling trading nations to use English or Colonial ships.
The governments of the Colonies were controlled by England. In the Colonies, a governor, appointed by the King, would lead the area. Also, the governor would appoint a council group and land owning whites voted for assembly leaders. As time grew on, the Colonies began to see themselves as independent from England.