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Content Reading: The Antebellum Era (1781-1860): The Rise of Jacksonian Democracy Part 1
During this time, the North was becoming industrialized while the South remained agrarian. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1700s and gradually spread to the Americas. This led to the rise of factories and mass produced products in the USA.
In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin, which removed seeds from cotton. This made cotton production faster and increased slavery in the South. From 1790 to 1820, slavery grew from 700,000 slaves to 1.5 million slaves. It was clear the North and South were becoming vastly different in their culture and practice of slavery.
A plan called the American System was led by Henry Clay of Kentucky and James Madison. The plan called for tariffs (taxes on foreign products), reviving the national bank, and increasing transportation infrastructure in the USA. In 1816, The Second Bank of the USA was opened.
In relation to slavery, the Missouri Compromise came about in 1820. Missouri wanted to enter the Union as a slave state. Many in the North felt this would give too much power to the South in Congress. For a compromise, Maine was added as a free state to bring balance to the Legislative Branch, meaning the North and South would have similar influence in Congress. The compromise stated that all future states above 36’ 30’ would be free and states below this region could be slave states. Henry Clay of Kentucky had a great role in the compromise.
In 1823, President James Monroe stated his intention that, as President, he would assert the power of the USA to have a dominant leadership role in the Western Hemisphere. Monroe stated that future efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with nations in North or South America would be viewed as acts of hostility. Monroe warned this would require the USA to pursue intervention in such matters, including the possibility of military action. This was called the Monroe Doctrine.
In 1824, the election was too close to call and the House of Representatives chose the victor. Henry Clay, a candidate, forfeited his Electoral College votes to John Quincy Adams. Andrew Jackson called this the corrupt bargain and used it to support his Presidential campaign in 1828. In 1828, Andrew Jackson, a veteran of the War of 1812, was elected President.